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First case of Alzheimer's disease Reprint

Perspective on Microglia Abstract Reprint Full Text


Original papers


  1. Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1985) Immuno gold staining (IGS) for electron microscopical demonstration of glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein in LR White embedded tissue. Histochemistry 83: 497-500
  2. Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1986) Astrocytes increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein during retrograde changes of facial motor neurons. Journal of Neurocytology 15: 363-373
  3. Schoen SW, Graeber MB, Reddington M, Kreutzberg GW (1987) Light and electron microscopical immunocytochemistry of 5'-nucleotidase in rat cerebellum. Histochemistry 87: 107-113
  4. Schoen SW, Graeber MB, Toth L, Kreutzberg GW (1988) 5'-Nucleotidase in postnatal ontogeny of rat cerebellum: a marker for migrating nerve cells? Developmental Brain Research 39: 125-136
  5. Graeber MB, Tetzlaff W, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1988) Microglial cells but not astrocytes undergo mitosis following rat facial nerve axotomy. Neuroscience Letters 85: 317-321
  6. Tetzlaff W, Graeber MB, Bisby MA, Kreutzberg GW (1988) Increased glial fibrillary acidic protein synthesis in astrocytes during retrograde reaction of the rat facial nucleus. Glia 1: 90-95
  7. Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1988) Delayed astrocyte reaction following facial nerve axotomy. Journal of Neurocytology 17: 209-220
  8. Graeber MB, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1988) The microglial cytoskeleton: vimentin is localized within activated cells in situ. Journal of Neurocytology 17: 573-580
  9. Graeber MB, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1988) Axotomy of the rat facial nerve leads to increased CR3 complement receptor expression by activated microglial cells. Journal of Neuroscience Research 21: 18-24
  10. Streit WJ, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1989) Peripheral nerve lesion produces increased levels of major histocompatibility complex antigens in the central nervous system. Journal of Neuroimmunology 21: 117-123
  11. Graeber MB, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1989) Identity of ED2 positive perivascular cells in rat brain. Journal of Neuroscience Research 22: 103-106
  12. Rieske E, Graeber MB, Tetzlaff W, Czlonkowska A, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1989) Microglia and microglia derived brain macrophages in culture: generation from axotomized rat facial nuclei, identification and characterization in vitro. Brain Research 492: 1-14
  13. Graeber MB, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1989) Formation of microglia  derived brain macrophages is blocked by adriamycin. Acta Neuropathologica 78: 348-358
  14. Streit WJ, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1989) Expression of Ia antigen on perivascular and microglial cells after sublethal and lethal motor neuron injury. Experimental Neurology 105: 115-126
  15. Graeber MB, Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1989) Increase of transferrin receptors and iron uptake in regenerating motor neurons. Journal of Neuroscience Research 23: 342-345
  16. Graeber MB, Banati RB, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1989) Immunophenotypic characterization of rat brain macrophages in culture. Neuroscience Letters 103: 241-246
  17. Kuecherer Ehret A, Graeber MB, Edgar D, Thoenen H, Kreutzberg GW (1990) Immunoelectron microscopic localization of laminin in normal and regenerating mouse sciatic nerve. Journal of Neurocytology 19: 101-109
  18. Graeber MB, Streit WJ, Kiefer R, Schoen SW, Kreutzberg GW (1990) New expression of myelomonocytic antigens by microglia and perivascular cells following lethal motor neuron injury. Journal of Neuroimmunology 27: 121-132
  19. Schoen SW, Graeber MB, Toth L, Kreutzberg GW (1991) Synaptic 5'-nucleotidase is transient and indicative of climbing fiber plasticity during the postnatal development of rat cerebellum. Developmental Brain Research 61: 125-138
  20. Raivich G, Graeber MB, Gehrmann J, Kreutzberg GW (1991) Transferrin receptor expression and iron uptake in the injured and regenerating rat sciatic nerve. European Journal of Neuroscience 3: 919-927
  21. Kupke KG, Graeber MB, Müller U (1992) Dystonia-parkinsonism syndrome (XDP) locus: flanking markers in Xq12-Xq21.1. American Journal of Human Genetics 50: 808-815
  22. Graeber MB, Streit WJ, Büringer D, Sparks L, Kreutzberg GW (1992) Ultrastructural location of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II positive perivascular cells in histologically normal human brain. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 51: 303-311
  23. Nacimiento W, Podoll K, Graeber MB, Töpper R, Möbius E, Ostermann H, Noth J, Kreutzberg GW (1992) Contralateral early blink reflex in patients with facial nerve palsy: indication for synaptic reorganization in the facial nucleus during regeneration. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 109: 148-155
  24. Graeber MB, Monaco AP, Chelly J, Müller U (1992) Isolation of DNTR polymorphisms from yeast artificial chromosomes encompassing X chromosomal loci PGK1 and DXS56. Human Genetics 90: 270-274
  25. Graeber MB, Kupke KG, Müller U (1992) Delineation of the dystonia-parkinsonism syndrome locus in Xq13. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 89: 8245-8248
  26. Schoen SW, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1992) 5'-Nucleotidase immunoreactivity of perineuronal microglia responding to rat facial nerve axotomy. Glia 6: 314-317
  27. Streit WJ, Graeber MB (1993) Heterogeneity of microglial and perivascular cell populations: Insights gained from the facial nucleus paradigm. Glia 7: 68-74
  28. Raivich G, Gehrmann J, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1993) Quantitative immunohistochemistry in the rat facial nucleus with [125I]-iodinated secondary antibodies and in situ autoradiography: Non-linear binding characteristics of primary monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 41: 579-592
  29. Graeber MB, Bise K, Mehraein P (1993) Synaptic stripping in the human facial nucleus. Acta Neuropathologica 86: 179-181
  30. Markiewicz S, DiSanto JP, Chelly J, Fairweather N, Le Marec B, Griscelli C, Graeber MB, Müller U, Fischer A, Monaco AP, de Saint Basile G (1993) Fine mapping of the human SCIDX1 locus at Xq12-13.1. Human Molecular Genetics 2: 651-654
  31. Kösel S, Graeber MB (1993) Non-radioactive direct sequencing of PCR products amplified from neuropathological specimens. Brain Pathology 3: 421-424
  32. Graeber MB, Müller U, Monaco AP, Weber JL (1993) Four dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms at the D7S804 locus. Human Molecular Genetics 2: 2195
  33. Kösel S, Graeber MB (1994) Use of neuropathological tissue for molecular genetic studies: parameters affecting DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction. Acta Neuropathologica 88: 19-25
  34. Kösel S, Egensperger R, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1994) No association of mutations at nucleotide 5460 of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase with Alzheimer's disease. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 203: 745-749
  35. Egensperger R, Kösel S, Schnabel R, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1995) Apolipoprotein E genotype and neuropathological phenotype in two members of a German family with chromosome 14-linked early onset Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathologica 90: 257-265
  36. Lücking CB, Kösel S, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1995) Absence of the mitochondrial A7237T mutation in Parkinson's disease. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 211: 700-704
  37. Kurz A, Egensperger R, Lautenschlager N, Haupt M, Altland K, Graeber MB, Müller U (1995) Das Apolipoprotein E-Gen und der Phänotyp der Alzheimer-Krankheit. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie 28:195-199
  38. Kösel S, Lücking CB, Egensperger R, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1996) Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase and CYP2D6 genotypes in Lewy-body parkinsonism. Journal of Neuroscience Research 44: 174-183
  39. Kurz A, Egensperger R, Haupt M, Lautenschlager N, Romero B, Graeber MB, Müller U (1996) Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele, cognitive decline, and deterioration of everyday performance in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 47: 440-443
  40. Egensperger R, Bancher C, Kösel S, Jellinger K, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1996) The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele in Parkinson's disease with Alzheimer lesions. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 224:484-486
  41. Schnopp NM, Kösel S, Egensperger R, Graeber MB (1996) Regional heterogeneity of mtDNA heteroplasmy in Parkinsonian brain. Clinical Neuropathology 15: 348-352
  42. Bancher C, Egensperger R, Kösel S, Jellinger K, Graeber MB (1997) Low prevalence of apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele in the neurofibrillary tangle predominant form of senile dementia. Acta Neuropathologica 94:403-409
  43. Egensperger R, Kösel S, Schnopp NM, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1997) Association of the mitochondrial tRNA A4336G mutation with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 23:315-321
  44. Kösel S, Egensperger R, von Eitzen U, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1997) On the question of apoptosis in the Parkinsonian substantia nigra. Acta Neuropathologica 93: 105-108
  45. Kösel S, Egensperger R, Schnopp NM, Graeber MB (1997) The 'common deletion' is not increased in Parkinsonian substantia nigra as shown by competitive PCR. Movement Disorders: 12:639-645
  46. Korr H, Philippi V, Helg C, Schiefer J, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1997) Unscheduled DNA synthesis and mitochondrial DNA synthetic rate following injury of the facial nerve. Acta Neuropathologica 94:557-566
  47. Graeber MB, Kösel S, Egensperger R, Banati RB, Müller U, Bise K, Hoff P, Möller HJ, Fujisawa K, Mehraein P (1997) Rediscovery of the case described by Alois Alzheimer in 1911: historical, histological and molecular genetic analysis. Neurogenetics 1:73-80
  48. Jones LL, Banati RB, Graeber MB, Bonfanti L, Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1997) Population control of microglia: Does apoptosis play a role? Journal of Neurocytology 26:755-770
  49. Kösel S, Egensperger R, Bise K, Arbogast S, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1997) Long-lasting perivascular accumulation of MHC class II-positive lipophages in the spinal cord of stroke patients: possible relevance for the immune privilege of the brain. Acta Neuropathologica 94:532-538
  50. Kösel S, Grasbon-Frodl EM, Mautsch U, Egensperger R, von Eitzen U, Frishman D, Hofmann S, Gerbitz KD, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1998) Novel mutations of mitochondrial complex I in pathologically proven Parkinson disease. Neurogenetics 1:197-204
  51. Krüger R, Kuhn W, Müller T, Woitalla D, Graeber M, Kösel S, Przuntek H, Epplen JT, Schöls L, Rieß O (1998) Ala30Pro missense mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene causes autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. Nature Genetics 18:106-108
  52. Graeber MB, Kösel S, Grasbon-Frodl E, Möller HJ, Mehraein P (1998) Histopathology and APOE genotype of the first Alzheimer disease patient, Auguste D. Neurogenetics 1:223-228
  53. von Eitzen U, Egensperger R, Kösel S, Grasbon-Frodl EM, Imai Y, Bise K, Kohsaka S, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1998) Microglia and the development of spongiform change in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 57:246-256
  54. Egensperger R, Kösel S, von Eitzen U, Graeber MB (1998) Microglial activation in Alzheimer disease: association with APOE genotype. Brain Pathology 8:439-447
  55. Tran CT, Wolz P, Egensperger R, Kösel S, Imai Y, Bise K, Kohsaka S, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1998) Differential expression of MHC class II molecules by microglia and neoplastic astroglia: relevance for the escape of astrocytoma cells from immune surveillance. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 24:293-301
  56. Möller HJ, Graeber MB (1998) The case described by Alois Alzheimer in 1911: Historical and conceptual perspectives based on the clinical history and the neurohistopathological sections. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 248:111-122
  57. Graeber MB, Lopez-Redondo F, Ikoma E, Ishikawa M, Imai Y, Nakajima K, Kreutzberg GW, Kohsaka S (1998) The microglia/macrophage response in the neonatal rat facial nucleus following axotomy. Brain Research 813:241-253
  58. Grasbon-Frodl E M, Kösel S, Riess O, Müller U, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1999) Analysis of mitochondrial targeting sequence and coding region polymorphisms of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene in German Parkinson disease patients. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 255:749-752
  59. Grasbon-Frodl E M, Egensperger R, Kösel S, Krüger R, Riess O, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1999) The alpha1-antichymotrypsin A-allele in German Parkinson disease patients. Journal of Neural Transmission 106:729-736
  60. Grasbon-Frodl EM, Kösel S, Sprinzl M, von Eitzen U, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1999) Two novel point mutations of mitochondrial tRNA genes in histologically confirmed Parkinson disease. Neurogenetics 2:121-127



  1. Flügel A, Labeur MS, Grasbon-Frodl EM, Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB (1999) Microglia only weakly present glioma antigen to cytotoxic T cells. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 17:547-556
  2. Kösel S, Grasbon-Frodl EM, Hagenah JM, Graeber MB, Vieregge P (2000) Parkinson disease: Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in monozygotic twins. Neurogenetics 2:227-230
  3. Flügel A, Schwaiger FW, Neumann H, Medana I, Willem M, Wekerle H, Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB (2000) Neuronal FasL induces cell death of encephalitogenic T lymphocytes. Brain Pathology 10: 353-364
  4. Flügel A, Hager G, Horvat A, Spitzer C, Singer GM, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW, Schwaiger FW (2001) Neuronal MCP-1 expression in response to remote nerve injury. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 21:69-76
  5. Kösel S, Scheithauer BW, Graeber MB (2001) Genotype-phenotype correlation in gemistocytic astrocytomas. Neurosurgery 48:187-194
  6. Giannini C, Scheithauer BW, Weaver AL, Burger PC, Kros JM, Mork S, Graeber MB, Bauserman S, Buckner J, Burton J, Riepe R, Tazelaar HD, Nascimento AG, Crotty T, Keeney GL, Pernicone P, Altermatt H (2001) Oligodendrogliomas: reproducibility and prognostic value of histologic diagnosis and grading. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 60: 248-262
  7. Kösel S, Grasbon-Frodl EM, Arima K, Chimelli L, Hahn M, Hashizume Y, Hulette C, Ikeda K, Jacobsen PF, Jones M, Kobayashi M, Love S, Mizutani T, Rosemberg S, Sasaki A, Smith TW, Takahashi H, Vortmeyer AO, Graeber MB (2001) Inter-laboratory comparison of DNA preservation in archival paraffin-embedded human brain tissue from participating centres on four continents. Neurogenetics 3:163-170
  8. Flügel A, Bradl M, Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB (2001) Transformation of donor-derived bone marrow precursors into host microglia during autoimmune CNS inflammation and during the retrograde response to axotomy. Journal of Neuroscience Research 66:74–82
  9. Moran LB, Kösel S, Spitzer C, Schwaiger FW, Riess O, Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB (2001) Expression of alpha-synuclein in non-apoptotic, slowly degenerating facial motoneurones. Journal of Neurocytology 30:515-521
  10. Moran LB, Duke DC, Turkheimer FE, Banati RB, Graeber MB (2004) Towards a transcriptome definition of microglial cells. Neurogenetics 5:95-108
  11. Moss J, Ryder T, Aziz TZ, Graeber MB, Bain PG (2004) Electron microscopy of tissue adherent to explanted electrodes in dystonia and Parkinson's disease. Brain 127: 2755-63
  12. Duke DC, Moran LB, Turkheimer FE, Banati R, Graeber MB (2004) Microglia in culture: what genes do they express? Developmental Neuroscience 26: 30-7
  13. Banati RB, Egensperger R, Maassen A, Hager G, Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB (2004) Mitochondria in activated microglia in vitro. Journal of Neurocytology 33: 535–541
  14. Croisier E, Moran LB, Dexter DT, Pearce RKB, Graeber MB (2005) Microglial inflammation in the parkinsonian substantia nigra: relationship to alpha-synuclein deposition. Journal of Neuroinflammation 3;2:14. (Correction 6;3:9.)
  15. Moran LB, Duke DC, Deprez M, Dexter DT, Pearce RK, Graeber MB (2006) Whole genome expression profiling of the medial and lateral substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. Neurogenetics 7(1):1-11. Epub 2006 Jan 12.
  16. Croisier E, Elfant D, Deprez M, Goldring K, Dexter DT, Pearce RK, Graeber MB, Roncaroli F (2006) Comparative study of commercially available anti-alpha-synuclein antibodies. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 32(3):351-356
  17. Nakajima K, Graeber MB, Sonoda M, Tohyama Y, Kohsaka S, Kurihara T (2006) In vitro proliferation of axotomized rat facial nucleus-derived activated microglia in an autocrine fashion. J Neurosci Res. 1;84(2):348-59
  18. Duke DC, Moran LB, Kalaitzakis ME, Deprez M, Dexter DT, Pearce RK, Graeber MB (2006) Transcriptome analysis reveals link between proteasomal and mitochondrial pathways in Parkinson's disease. Neurogenetics. 7(3):139-48. Epub 2006 May 13.
  19. Alafuzoff I, Pikkarainen M, Al-Sarraj S, Arzberger T, Bell J, Bodi I, Bogdanovic N, Budka H, Bugiani O, Ferrer I, Gelpi E, Giaccone G, Graeber MB, Hauw JJ, Kamphorst W, King A, Kopp N, Korkolopoulou P, Kovacs GG, Meyronet D, Parchi P, Patsouris E, Preusser M, Ravid R, Roggendorf W, Seilhean D, Streichenberger N, Thal DR, Kretzschmar H (2006) Interlaboratory comparison of assessments of Alzheimer disease-related lesions: a study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 65(8):740-57.
  20. Harris JE, Fernandez-Vilaseca M, Elkington PT, Horncastle DE, Graeber MB, Friedland JS (2006) IFN{gamma} synergizes with IL-1{beta} to up-regulate MMP-9 secretion in a cellular model of central nervous system tuberculosis. FASEB J. 2006 Dec 11; [Epub ahead of print]
  21. Moran LB, Duke DC, Graeber MB (2006) The microglial gene regulatory network activated by interferon-gamma. J Neuroimmunol. Dec 21; [Epub ahead of print]
  22. Harris JE, Nuttall RK, Elkington PT, Green JA, Horncastle DE, Graeber MB, Edwards DR, Friedland JS (2007) Monocyte-astrocyte networks regulate matrix metalloproteinase gene expression and secretion in central nervous system tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo. J Immunol. Jan 15;178(2):1199-207.
  23. Moran LB, Croisier E, Duke DC, Kalaitzakis ME, Roncaroli F, Deprez M, Dexter DT, Pearce RK, Graeber MB (2007) Analysis of alpha-synuclein, dopamine and parkin pathways in neuropathologically confirmed parkinsonian nigra. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). Jan 4; [Epub ahead of print]
  24. Duke DC, Moran LB, Pearce RK, Graeber MB (2007) The medial and lateral substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease: mRNA profiles associated with higher brain tissue vulnerability. Neurogenetics. Jan 9; [Epub ahead of print]
  25. Geranmayeh F, Scheithauer BW, Spitzer C, Meyer FB, Svensson-Engwall AC, Graeber MB (2007) Microglia in gemistocytic astrocytomas. Neurosurgery. 2007 Jan;60(1):159-66; discussion 166.
  26. Moran LB, Hickey L, Michael GJ, Derkacs M, Christian LM, Kalaitzakis ME, Pearce RK, Graeber MB (2007) Neuronal pentraxin II is highly upregulated in Parkinson's disease and a novel component of Lewy bodies. Acta Neuropathologica 2008 Jun;34(3):284-95. Epub 2007 Dec 5.
  27. Kalaitzakis ME, Graeber MB, Gentleman SM, Pearce RK (2007) The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus is not an obligatory trigger site of Parkinson's disease: a critical analysis of alpha-synuclein staging. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 2008 Jun;34(3):284-95. Epub 2007 Dec 5.
  28. Kalaitzakis ME, Graeber MB, Gentleman SM, Pearce RKB (2008) Striatal beta-amyloid deposition in Parkinson’s disease with dementia. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 67: 155-61.
  29. Moran LB, Graeber MB (2008) Towards a pathway definition of Parkinson’s disease: A complex disorder with links to cancer, diabetes and inflammation. Neurogenetics 2008 Feb;9(1):1-13. Epub 2008 Jan 12.
  30. Alafuzoff I, Arzberger T, Al-Sarraj S, Bodi I, Bogdanovic N, Braak H, Bugiani O, Del-Tredici K, Ferrer I, Gelpi E, Giaccone G, Graeber MB, Ince P, Kamphorst W, King A, Korkolopoulou P, Kovács GG, Larionov S, Meyronet D, Monoranu C, Parchi P, Patsouris E, Roggendorf W, Seilhean D, Tagliavini F, Stadelmann-Nessler C, Streichenberger N, Thal DR, Wharton SB, Kretzschmar H (2008) Staging of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's Disease - a study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium. Brain Pathology 2008 Oct;18(4):484-96. Epub 2008 Mar 26.
  31. Kalaitzakis ME, Christian LM, Moran LB, Graeber MB, Pearce RKB, Gentleman SM (2008) Dementia and visual hallucinations associate with limbic pathology in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2008 Jul 3. [Epub ahead of print]
  32. Durrenberger PF, Filiou MD, Moran LB, Michael GJ, Novoselov S, Cheetham ME, Clark P, Pearce RKB, Graeber MB (2008) DnaJB6 is present in the core of Lewy bodies and is highly up-regulated in Parkinsonian astrocytes. Journal of Neuroscience Research 2008 Aug 18. [Epub ahead of print]
  33. Slodzinski H, Moran LB, Michael GJ, Wang B, Novoselov S, Cheetham ME, Pearce RKB, Graeber MB. Homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum protein (Herp) is up-regulated in Parkinsonian substantia nigra and present in the core of Lewy bodies. Clinical Neuropathology, in press


Review articles


  1. Streit WJ, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1988) Functional plasticity of microglia: a review. Glia 1: 301-307
  2. Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB, Streit WJ (1989) Neuron-glial relationship during regeneration of motorneurons. Metabolic Brain Disease 4: 81-86
  3. Graeber MB, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1990) The third glial cell type, the microglia: cellular markers of activation in situ. Acta Histochemica, Suppl. 38: 157-160
  4. Raivich G, Hellweg R, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1990) The expression of growth factor receptors during nerve regeneration. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 1: 217-223
  5. Graeber MB, Streit WJ (1990) Microglia: immune network in the CNS. Brain Pathology 1: 2-5
  6. Müller U, Graeber MB (1991) Dystonie-Parkinson-Syndrom. Molekulare Analyse einer X-chromosomal rezessiv vererbten neurodegenerativen Erkrankung. Munchner Medizinische Wochenschrift 133: 456-460
  7. Graeber MB, Müller U (1992) The X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism syndrome (XDP): Clinical and molecular genetic analysis. Brain Pathology 2: 287-295
  8. Graeber MB (1993) Microglia, macrophages and the blood-brain barrier. Clinical Neuropathology 12: 296-297
  9. Graeber MB, Müller U (1994) Neurogenetische Untersuchungen am X-chromosomalen Dystonie-Parkinson-Syndrom (XDP). ZNS Journal 7: 13-17
  10. Müller U, Graeber MB, Haberhausen G, Köhler A (1994) Molecular basis and diagnosis of neurogenetic disorders. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 124: 119-140
  11. Raivich G, Graeber M, Gehrmann J, Moreno-Flores MT, Kreutzberg GW (1994) Regulation of transferrin receptors and iron uptake in normal and injured nervous system. European Archives of Otorhinolaryngology, Suppl.: S51-S54
  12. Graeber MB (1994) The role of astrocytes in facial nerve regeneration. European Archives of Otorhinolaryngology, Suppl.: S75-S77
  13. Banati RB, Graeber MB (1994) Surveillance, intervention and cytotoxicity: Is there a protective role of microglia? Developmental Neuroscience 16: 114-127
  14. Graeber MB (1995) Morbus Parkinson - eine Gruppe genetisch heterogener Erkrankungen? Fortschritte der Medizin 113:462
  15. Müller U, Graeber MB (1996) Neurogenetic diseases: molecular diagnosis and therapeutic approaches. Journal of Molecular Medicine 74: 71-84
  16. Kösel S, Egensperger R, Lücking CB, Schnopp NM, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1996) Genotyp-Analyse bei Hirnerkrankungen. Neuroforum 3/96: 11-20
  17. Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1996) Hirntumoren und ihre Bedeutung für die Neurologie und Psychiatrie. ZNS Journal 13: 11-18
  18. Graeber MB, Müller U (1998) Recent developments in the molecular genetics of mitochondrial disorders. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 153:251-263
  19. Graeber MB, Grasbon-Frodl E, von Eitzen U, Kösel S (1998) Neurodegeneration and aging: Role of the second genome. Journal of Neuroscience Research 52: 1-6
  20. Kösel S, Grasbon-Frodl EM, Graeber MB (1998) A new approach to the genetic analysis of nervous system diseases: Retrospective genotyping of archival brains. Progress in Brain Research 117:307-313
  21. Kösel S, Hofhaus G, Maassen A, Vieregge P, Graeber MB (1999) Role of mitochondria in Parkinson disease. Biological Chemistry 380:865-870
  22. Graeber MB, Grasbon-Frodl E, Abell-Aleff P, Kösel S (1999) Nigral neurons are likely to die of a mechanism other than classical apoptosis in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 5:187-192
  23. Graeber MB, Mehraein P (1999) Reanalysis of the first case of Alzheimer disease. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 249, S10-S13
  24. Riess O, Krüger R, Schöls L, Kösel S, Graeber MB (1999) Zur Genetik und Pathogenese des Morbus Parkinson. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 96: 2739-2748
  25. Graeber MB (1999) No man alone: The rediscovery of Alois Alzheimer's original cases. Brain Pathology 9:237-240
  26. Graeber MB, Moran LB (2002) Mechanisms of cell death in neurodegenerative diseases: Fashion, fiction, and facts. Brain Pathology 12:385-390
  27. Graeber MB, Scheithauer BW, Kreutzberg GW (2002) Microglia in brain tumors. Glia 40:252-259
  28. Graeber MB (2003) History of Neuroscience: Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915), IBRO History of Neuroscience http://www.ibro.info/Pub/Pub_Main_Display.asp?LC_Docs_ID=3445


  1. Graeber MB, Müller U (2003) Dementia with Lewy bodies: disease concept and genetics. Neurogenetics 4:157-162
  2. Malaspina A, Pearce RK, Graeber MB (2003) Nuclear hormone and orphan receptors: their role in neuronal differentiation and cytoprotection and in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Developmental Neuroscience 25:375-383
  3. Turkheimer FE, Banati RB, Moran L, Duke D, Graeber MB (2004) Translating the cellular neuropathology of microglia into neuroimaging results. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. Vol. 30 (4) 415 Suppl. 1-4
  4. Moran LB, Graeber MB (2004) The facial nerve axotomy model. Brain Research Reviews 44:154-178
  5. Croisier E, Graeber MB (2006) Glial degeneration and reactive gliosis in alpha-synucleinopathies: the emerging concept of primary gliodegeneration. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 2006 Nov;112(5):517-30. Epub 2006 Aug 1.
  6. Graeber MB (2008) Biomarkers for Parkinson's disease. Experimental Neurology, in press


Book chapters


  1. Tetzlaff W, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1986) Reaction of motoneurons and their microenvironment to axotomy. In: Gilad GM, Gorio A, Kreutzberg GW (eds) Processes of Recovery from Neural Trauma. Experimental Brain Research, Suppl. 13: 3-8
  2. Rieske-Shows E, Tetzlaff W, Czlonkowska A, Graeber M, Kreutzberg GW (1987) Microglia in culture. In: Althaus HH, Seifert W (eds) NATO ASI Series H, Vol. 2, Glial-Neuronal Communication in Development and Regeneration. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 41-51
  3. Kreutzberg GW, Engel AK, Graeber MB, Tetzlaff W, Toth L (1988) Structural plasticity in lesioned motoneurons. In: Flohr H (ed) Post-Lesion Neural Plasticity. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 57-64
  4. Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB, Streit WJ, Tetzlaff W (1989) Glial reactions accompanying the regeneration process in motoneurons. In: Scarpini E, Fiori MG, Pleasure D, Scarlato G (eds) Peripheral nerve development and regeneration. Recent advances and clinical applications. Fidia Research Series 19, Liviana Press, Padova, pp 199-206
  5. Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1990) Astrocytic reactions accompanying motor neuron regeneration. In: Seil FJ (ed) Advances in Neural Regeneration Research, Alan R. Liss, New York, pp 215-224
  6. Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB, Raivich G, Streit WJ (1990) Neuron-glial relationship during regeneration of motoneurons. In: Giuffrida Stella GM, Perez-Polo JR, de Vellis J (eds) Regulation of Gene Expression in the Nervous System, Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 333-341
  7. Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB (1990) Cellular biology of the experimental peripheral nerve lesion. In: Samii M (ed) Peripheral Nerve Lesions, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1-6
  8. Graeber MB, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1991) The glial response to motor neuron axotomy: Role of microglia and astrocytes. Proceedings of the XIth International Congress of Neuropathology. Neuropathology, Suppl. 4: 282-287
  9. Graeber MB, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1991) Toward an immunological definition of the blood-brain barrier: Significance of MHC class II positive perivascular cells. Proceedings of the XIth International Congress of Neuropathology, Satellite Symposium on Demyelination. Neuropathology, Suppl. 4: S74-79
  10. Graeber MB (1993) Antigen presentation at the blood-brain barrier: A role for astrocytes? In: Fedoroff S, Juurlink BHJ, Doucette R (eds) Biology and Pathology of Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions, Plenum Press, New York, pp 263-270
  11. Graeber MB, Kösel S, Mehraein P (1994) Nicht-radioaktives Direkt-sequenzieren von Produkten der Polymerase-Ketten-Reaktion an neuropathologischem Routine- und Archivmaterial. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie 78: 235
  12. Lücking CB, Kösel S, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1994) Analyse mitochondrialer DNS im Gehirn von Parkinson-Patienten. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurologie 8: 586-588
  13. Kösel S, Lücking CB, Egensperger R, Graeber MB (1996) Non-radioactive PCR sequencing using digoxigenin. In: Rapley R (ed) Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 65: PCR Sequencing Protocols, Humana Press, Totowa, pp 81-89
  14. Egensperger R, Kösel S, Lücking CB, Mehraein P, Graeber MB (1996) Untersuchungen zum Apolipoprotein E-Genotyp an histologisch gesicherten Fällen von Morbus Alzheimer. In: Möller HJ, Müller-Spahn F, Kurtz G (eds) Biologische Psychiatrie 1996, Springer, Wien New York, S. 541-547
  15. Graeber MB (1996) The microglial "sensor" of pathology. In: Ling EA, Tan CK, Tan CBC (eds) Topical Issues in Microglial Research. Singapore Neuroscience Association, Singapore, S. 237-253
  16. Kreutzberg GW, Blakemore WF, Graeber MB (1997) Cellular Pathology of the Central Nervous System. In: Graham DI, Lantos PL (eds) Greenfield's Neuropathology, Chapter 3, 6th edn. Edward Arnold, London, pp. 85-156
  17. Graeber MB, von Eitzen U, Grasbon-Frodl E, Egensperger R, Kösel S (1997) Microglia: A "sensor" of pathology in the human CNS. In: Oehmichen M, König HG (eds) Neurotraumatology - Biomechanic Aspects, Cytologic and Molecular Mechanisms. Schmidt-Römhild, Lübeck, pp. 239-252
  18. Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB (1998) Glial cell activation in the facial nucleus as a response to nerve lesion. In: Yanagihara N, Murakami S (eds) New Horizons in Facial Nerve Research and Facial Expression. Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on the Facial Nerve, Matsuyama, Ehime, Japan, April 13-18, 1997. Kugler Publications, The Hague, pp. 11-14
  19. Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB (1999) Microglial cells: Primary responders to pathology in the central nervous system. In: Ikuta F (ed) Glial cells, ISBN 4-906347-83-5, pp. 179-190
  20. Möller HJ, Graeber MB (2000) Johann F.: The historical relevance of the case for the concept of Alzheimer disease. In: Whitehouse PJ, Maurer K, Ballenger JF (eds) The Concept of Alzheimer disease: Biological, Clinical and Cultural Perspectives. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 30-46
  21. Grasbon-Frodl EM, Kösel S, Graeber MB (2001) Mitochondrial aspects of Parkinson's disease. In: Ebadi M, Marwah J and Chopra R (eds) Mitochondrial Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q10): Biochemical, Functional, Medical, and Therapeutic Aspects in Human Health and Diseases. Prominent Press, Scottsdale, pp. 329-349
  22. Graeber MB, Blakemore WF, Kreutzberg GW (2002) Cellular pathology of the central nervous system. In: Graham DI, Lantos PL (eds) Greenfield's Neuropathology, Chapter 3, 7th edn., Edward Arnold, London, pp. 123-191
  23. Kösel S, Lücking CB, Egensperger R, Graeber MB (2003) Nonradioactive PCR sequencing using digoxigenin. In: Bartlett JMS, Stirling D (ed) Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 226: PCR Protocols, Second Edition, Humana Press, Totowa, pp 347-354
  24. Graeber MB (2004) Microglia. In: G Adelman, BH Smith (eds) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, 3rd ed on CD-ROM, Elsevier
  25. Graeber MB (2004) Microglia. In: Aminoff M, Daroff RB (eds) Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, ISBN 0122268709, Academic Press, San Diego, pages 137-140




  1. Graeber MB, Streit WJ (1990) Perivascular microglia defined. Trends in Neurosciences 13: 366
  2. Streit WJ, Graeber MB (1991) Perivascular location and phenotypic heterogeneity of microglial cells in the rat brain. Journal of Neuroimmunology 33: 87
  3. Graeber MB, Bise K, Mehraein P (1994) CR3/43, a marker for activated human microglia: application to diagnostic neuropathology: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 20: 406-408
  4. Egensperger R, Herrmann H, Kösel S, Graeber MB (1998) Association between ACT polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 50:574
  5. Banati RB, Blunt S, Graeber MB (1999) What does apoptosis have to do with Parkinson's disease? Movement Disorders 14:384-385
  6. Von Eitzen U, Kösel S, Grasbon-Frodl EM, Egensperger R, Graeber MB (2000) Sequence analysis of the MTCYB gene in Parkinson disease. Neurogenetics 3:47-48
  7. Kalaitzakis ME, Graeber MB, Gentleman SM, Pearce RK. Response from authors. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 67: 484-485.
  8. Kalaitzakis ME, Graeber MB, Gentleman SM, Pearce RK. Controversies over the staging of alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease. Acta Neuropathologica 2008 Apr 30 [Epub ahead of print]
  9. Kalaitzakis ME, Graeber MB, Gentleman SM, Pearce RKB.  Evidence  against  a reliable staging system of α-synuclein pathology in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, in press




  1. Müller U, Graeber MB (1992) Genetics of Neurodegenerative Disorders. Brain Pathology 2: 285
  2. Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW, Streit WJ (1993) Microglia. Glia 7: 2-4
  3. Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1994) Microglia, cell of the brain decade. Brain Pathology 4: 337
  4. Müller U, Graeber MB, Hoffman EP (1997) Neurogenetics, a journal for a rapidly growing field. Neurogenetics 1:1
  5. Graeber MB (1997) Genotype-phenotype analyses: Important tasks for neuropathologists in the next century. Brain Pathology 7:1249-1250
  6. Müller U, Riess O, Graeber MB (1999) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurogenetik (DGNG). Medizinische Genetik 11: 444
  7. Graeber MB (1999) Cover. Nervenarzt 4: 99
  8. Müller U, Graeber MB, Hoffman EP, Lupski JR (1999) To the readership of Neurogenetics. Neurogenetics 2: 133
  9. Graeber MB (1999) Genetics of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer disease. Neurogenetics 2:135-136
  10. Müller U, Graeber MB, Lupski JR (2001) Online First publication. Neurogenetics 3:51
  11. Müller U, Graeber MB, Lupski JR (2003) Publication of microarray results. Neurogenetics 4: 155
  12. Müller U, Gasser T, Graeber MB (2004) 10 Jahre Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurogenetik. Medizinische Genetik 16: 379-280
  13. Graeber MB (2008) Twenty-first century brain banking: at the crossroads. Acta Neuropathologica 115(5): 493-496.


Conceptual articles


  1. Achim C, Auer R, Bergeron C, Cardozo A, Deprez M, de Vos R, Duyckaerts C, Egensperger R, Esiri M, Frosch MP, Giannini C, Goebel HH, Graeber MB, Graham DI, Gray F, Haltia M, Hashizume Y, Ikeda K, Ironside JW, Kreutzberg GW, Lantos PL, Lowe J, Ludwin S, Matsumoto Y, Olsson Y, Sasaki A, Scheithauer BW, Takahashi H, Tolnay M, Trojanowski JQ, Troost D, Webster H (2002) Global democratic consensus on neuropathological disease criteria. Lancet Neurology 1: 340
  2. Turkheimer FE, Duke DC, Moran LB, Graeber MB (2004) Wavelet analysis of gene expression (WAGE). 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro. ISBI2004-000749: 1183-1186
  3. Graeber MB, Lowe J, Radotra B (2004) A Free Community Approach to Classifying Disease. Public Library of Science Medicine Vol. 1 (2): 113-115
  4. Graeber MB (2006) PDS Tissue Bank. In progress, The Research Magazine of the Parkinson’s Disease Society, pp. 18-19
  5. Troost D, Graeber M (2007) Announcement - A European Board Examination in Neuropathology. Clinical Neuropathology 26(5):265


Meeting reports


  1. Müller U, Graeber MB (1994) Neurogenetik in Deutschland. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 91 (C): 1877-1878
  2. Müller U, Graeber MB (1994) Erster Workshop Neurogenetik in Deutschland. ZNS Journal 9: 2-3
  3. Graeber MB, Müller U (1994) Neurogenetik von Bewegungsstörungen. ZNS Journal 9: 8-9
  4. Graeber MB, Müller U (1996) Second Workshop on Neurogenetics: German Society of Neurogenetics, Munich, 19-21 Oktober, 1995. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 22: 169-170
  5. Kakulas BA, Graeber M (1998) XIIIth International Congress of Neuropathology 7-12 September 1997, Perth, Western Australia. Brain Pathology 8: 219-226
  6. Graeber MB, Dexter D, Pearce RK, Reynolds R (2003) Parkinson's disease: an update. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 29:514-515


Book review


  1. Graeber MB (2007) Forensic Neuropathology and Associated Neurology. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 66(6):562




  1. Streit WJ, Graeber MB (1996) "Microglia: A Pictorial". Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 31/1: S. 1-91


Guest editor


  1. Müller U, Graeber MB (1992) Symposium "Genetics of Neurodegenerative Disorders". Brain Pathology 2: 285-362
  2. Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW, Streit WJ (1993) Special Issue "Microglia". Glia 7: 2-119